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A Powerful Live Performance by Scottish Songwriter Karine Polwart: NPR Music Tiny Desk Concert

Little Green Footballs - Sun, 04/21/2019 - 22:18

April 10, 2019 | Suraya Mohamed -- Scottish singer, songwriter and essayist Karine Polwart seldom comes stateside. She prefers to limit air travel in order to minimize her carbon footprint. She took exception, however, to fly from Edinburgh to New York City to participate in the Carnegie Hall Migrations festival, a celebration of the history of the movement of people all around the world. Polwart and her brother, guitarist Steven Polwart and multi-instrumentalist, Inge Thomson, then escaped New York for a day to play the Tiny Desk here in Washington, D.C.

Polwart writes songs about hope, music that harnesses spiritual power and lyrics that address important social justice themes. Stories of human emotion and the human experience are also commonplace as in the first tune, "Ophelia."

"There's a wind in from the desert
Red dust blows across the sun
It bleeds into the evening
We watch it from the garden
Your hair glints in the strange yellow light
We let go of all our fighting
Ophelia"

Her second song at the desk, "I Burn But I Am Not Consumed," includes a mesmerizing spoken word denunciation of President Donald Trump, while the closing tune, "King of Birds," praises the power of small things. In it Polwart recounts the legend of a wren who piggybacks a lift on an eagle's wing. Just as the large bird is unable to fly any higher in the sky, the tiny wren catches a breath of air, soars higher than the eagle and is crowned the king of all birds.

"At Ludgate Hill
where the towers of smoke and mirrors bruise the sky
the pilgrims huddle in
as the tiny King of Birds begins to cry
the people start to sing
to light glory in the dark
to ring the bell
and to breathe hope in every heart"

Lyricism and messages of hope and beauty heard throughout punctuate a stunning accompaniment of inventive instrumentation. The steady, resonant guitar riffs played by Steven Polwart ground the delicate vocal harmonies. Inge Thomson's accordion lines, combined with an array of percussion instruments and synth-generated effects, add a complimentary layer of sound without overpowering the music. Karine Polwart's bellowing and drone-like Shruti box provides a sweet serenity.

This performance will quite likely inspire you to learn more about Polwart. The NPR program, The Thistle and Shamrock often features her music. This recent episode features cuts from Polwart's latest album, plus her ideas on movement and migration.

SET LIST
"Ophelia"
"I Burn But I Am Not Consumed"
"King of Birds"

MUSICIANS
Karine Polwart: vocals, guitar, shruti box; Steven Polwart: guitar, vocals; Inge Thomson: accordion, percussion, noises, vocals

CREDITS
Producers: Suraya Mohamed, Morgan Noelle Smith ; Creative Director: Bob Boilen; Audio Engineer: Josh Rogosin; Videographers: Morgan Noelle Smith, Beck Harlan, CJ Riculan; Production Assistant: Adelaide Sandstrom; Photo: Amir Alfiky/NPR

Categories: Politics

Are We Sacrificing Too Much For Automation?

Slashdot - Sun, 04/21/2019 - 21:43
Fast Company shares an essay from an anthropologist who researches human agency, algorithms, AI, and automation in the context of social systems: With the advent of computational tools for quantitative measurement and metrics, and the development of machine learning based on the big data developed by those metrics, organizations, Amazon among them, started to transition through a period of what I refer to as "extreme data analysis," whereby anything and anyone that can be measured, is. This is a problem. Using counting, metrics, and implementation of outcomes from extreme data analysis to inform policies for humans is a threat to our well-being, and results in the stories we are hearing about in the warehouse, and in other areas of our lives, where humans are too often forfeiting their agency to algorithms and machines. Unfortunately, after decades of building this quantitative scaffolding, a company such as Amazon has pretty much baked it into their infrastructure and their culture.... As the world continues to automate things, processes, and services, humans are put in positions where we must constantly adapt, since at the moment, automation cannot, and does not, cooperate with us outside of its pre-programmed repertoire. Thus, in many instances we must do the yielding of our agency and our choices, to the algorithms or robots, to reach the cooperative outcomes we require.... If every process is eventually automated and restricts human agency, while simultaneously requiring our servitude to function, we will be pinned to the wall with no choices, nothing left to give, and no alternatives for coping with it. One example provided was the Amazon worker who complained the warehouse temperatures were always kept too hot -- to accommodate the needs of Amazon's robots. But the article argues we also forfeit agency "Every time we use a computer, or any computationally based device... "We do this by sitting or standing to use a keyboard, by typing, clicking, scrolling, checking boxes, pulling down menus, and filling in data in a way that the machine can understand."

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Categories: Geek

Politicians are not celebrities, and we are constituents, not fans

Daily Kos - Sun, 04/21/2019 - 21:15

I think I first started hearing the words “I am a fan of…” in regard to politicians in 2008, when Barack Obama was running. Granted, I had probably heard it most of my life, but I’d never paid much attention to it. In 2008 I did not think much of it—just the turn of a phrase. However, in 2019, the use of that phrase has grown, and when used with a politician’s name—the cult of personality is a very dangerous path to do down.

Now this is not an uncommon occurrence in American politics. In recent history one only has to look back to the 1960s to see it with the Kennedys and Camelot, or to remember how Reagan, Schwarzenegger, and Trump used their celebrity to propel them to state and national offices.

If you are a fan of Bernie, Kamala, Pete, Joe, or, heaven forbid, Donald, then you need to look at yourself in the mirror and promise to change. Politicians are not celebrities; they do not deserve fawning worship. They are public servants, who can and should be scrutinized, and must be held accountable for their actions. On the obverse, we are not fans; we are constituents, and we must demand better from our public servants. We must hold their feet to the fire, and if they fail—they must not be re-elected.

Categories: Politics

Wrapping Up the Weekend Open Thread

Balloon Juice - Sun, 04/21/2019 - 21:11

Categories: Politics

WormBase Manet is DOWN, 1555892166

WormBase Manet - Sun, 04/21/2019 - 20:35
Categories: Bio

Why Modern C++ Still Isn't As Safe As Memory-Safe Languages Like Rust and Swift

Slashdot - Sun, 04/21/2019 - 19:34
Alex Gaynor is a software engineer at Mozilla working on Firefox, after previously serving as a director of both the Python Software Foundation and the Django Software Foundation. In a new blog post today, he argues that memory unsafe languages, "principally C and C++," induce an exceptional number of security vulnerabilities, and that the industry needs to migrate to memory-safe languages like Rust and Swift by default. One of the responses I frequently receive is that the problem isn't C and C++ themselves, developers are simply holding them wrong. In particular, I often receive defenses of C++ of the form, "C++ is safe if you don't use any of the functionality inherited from C" or similarly that if you use modern C++ types and idioms you will be immune from the memory corruption vulnerabilities that plague other projects. I would like to credit C++'s smart pointer types, because they do significantly help. Unfortunately, my experience working on large C++ projects which use modern idioms is that these are not nearly sufficient to stop the flood of vulnerabilities... Modern C++ idioms introduce many changes which have the potential to improve security: smart pointers better express expected lifetimes, std::span ensures you always have a correct length handy, std::variant provides a safer abstraction for unions. However modern C++ also introduces some incredible new sources of vulnerabilities: lambda capture use-after-free, uninitialized-value optionals, and un-bounds-checked span. My professional experience writing relatively modern C++, and auditing Rust code (including Rust code that makes significant use of unsafe) is that the safety of modern C++ is simply no match for memory safe by default languages like Rust and Swift (or Python and JavaScript, though I find it rare in life to have a program that makes sense to write in either Python or C++). There are significant challenges to migrating existing, large, C and C++ codebases to a different language -- no one can deny this. Nonetheless, the question simply must be how we can accomplish it, rather than if we should try. The post highlights what he describes as "completely modern C++ idioms which produce vulnerabilities" -- including an example of dangling pointers "despite our meticulous use of smart pointers throughout..." "Even with the most modern C++ idioms available, the evidence is clear that, at scale, it's simply not possible to hold C++ right."

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Categories: Geek

Sen. Bernie Sanders' Fox News town hall: a template for a Democrat in the foxhole

Daily Kos - Sun, 04/21/2019 - 19:30

Democrats are decidedly wary about going on Fox News. Many have had mix feelings about appearing on the network for some time. But is it a valid fear or concern? Well, it depends.

A few weeks ago, the Democratic National Committee decided that there will be no Democratic primary debates on Fox News. I understand that Fox News is not a news channel, but a propaganda arm of the Republican Party and a Donald Trump stooge. That said, it has a large viewer base that progressives must address.

Polls point out that most Americans, including a significant percentage of Republicans, want progressive values. However, because many Fox News viewers are tunneled almost exclusively in the Fox News or right-wing talk radio world, they never hear our message. We must express it in a form that reaches them.

Democrats leave too many votes on the table that should be ours. Too often we assume that because it is challenging to have a substantive conversation with many people on the Right, it is more expedient to abandon them and work on the people in our party who don’t vote. When one spends many hours in the field speaking to people, it becomes evident quickly that the nonvoter always reverts to form unless one changes their entire outlook on their potential influence on the outcome of elections. Getting a voter on the Right to consider voting their interest is no more daunting. That being the case, we must respect and address them both.

Categories: Politics

Five-question interview with Denis Hayes, coordinator of Earth Day 1970, 1990, 2000 and ... 2020.

Daily Kos - Sun, 04/21/2019 - 19:20

On Earth Day 2008, I conducted a five-question interview with Denis Hayes, my onetime boss at the Solar Energy Research Institute, and now president of the Bullitt Foundation in Seattle. Hayes had coordinated the first Earth Day in 1970, when 20 million people attended environmentally focused events around the world. He was asked to coordinate the 20th anniversary of Earth Day in 1990 and Earth Day 2000 as well. And now he’s gearing up for the 50th Earth Day next year. You can see a condensed list of his prodigious accomplishments and awards here.

Denis Hayes, 2014 Denis Hayes in 2014

This morning at 10 AM ET, he will speak at the National Press Club in Washington, D.C., to announce mayor global mobilizations for the 50th anniversary. These include “Vote for the Earth,” “Earth Challenge 2020,” and the 2020 theme for Earth Day, a focus on the growing demands for immediate, transformative action to address the climate crisis. 

Although Earth Day 1970 focused desperately needed attention on the world's environmental troubles, it was also seen as a distraction from the war in Southeast Asia. Some people on the left argued that environmentalism was a snare and a delusion. Despite the environmental horrors visited on developing nations and vulnerable people in the more developed nations by the extractive industries, they viewed the whole movement as a low or nonexistent priority. They were reinforced in their views when the slaughter abroad came home. Just a week after Earth Day, on April 29, the U.S. sent troops into Cambodia and, within three weeks, six students had been killed during protests at Kent State and Jackson State universities.

Despite the demurrers, however, millions of people, including many on the left, joined in Earth Day activities. There were plenty of objections to be made. Among them was the fact that even some of the best events were peppered with corporate sponsors, many of whom were more interested in making a public relations coup than doing anything environmentally substantive. Mere marketing.

Nonetheless, for a time—in part because Richard Nixon needed something positive to balance his administration's disastrous continuation of the war and because he was pressured by Democrats such as Earth Day founder Gaylord Nelson and eco-advocates in his own party—quite a number of successful environmental initiatives were undertaken, including the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency and legislation on clean water and clean air.

Categories: Politics

WormBase Manet is DOWN, 1555884966

WormBase Manet - Sun, 04/21/2019 - 18:35
Categories: Bio

Black Hole Photo Used Supercomputers and Cloud Computing To Prove Einstein Right

Slashdot - Sun, 04/21/2019 - 18:32
An anonymous reader quotes The Next Web: As stunning and ground-breaking as it is, the EHT project is not just about taking on a challenge. It's an unprecedented test of whether Einstein's ideas about the very nature of space and time hold up in extreme circumstances, and looks closer than ever before at the role of black holes in the universe. To cut a long story short: Einstein was right.... His general theory of relativity has passed two serious tests from the universe's most extreme conditions in the last few years. Here, Einstein's theory predicted the observations from M87 with unerring accuracy, and is seemingly the correct description of the nature of space, time, and gravity. The measurements of the speeds of matter around the center of the black hole are consistent with being near the speed of light. The advanced computing research center at the University of Texas at Austin says the data for the photo "was collected during a 2017 global campaign, after decades of scientific, engineering, and computational research and preparation." And their own facility played a role in the finished photo, according to an article shared by aarondubrow: Helping to lay the groundwork for the black hole imaging, and providing the theoretical underpinnings that enabled the researchers to interpret the mass, underlying structure, and orientations of the black hole and its environment, were supercomputers at The University of Texas at Austin's Texas Advanced Computing Center (TACC) -- Stampede1, Stampede2 and Jetstream -- all three of which were supported by grants from the National Science Foundation (NSF), which also provided key funding for the EHT... "We are doing finite difference, three-dimensional simulations with not just gas dynamics, but also magnetic fields," said Harvard University professor and EHT researcher Ramesh Narayan. "That includes radiation and what is called two-temperature physics in a general relativistic framework. For these, we really do need the TACC's Stampede system with lots of cores and lots of hours.... The simulations are computationally very expensive and supercomputers are definitely needed...." Alongside the simulation and modeling effort, another group of researchers from the University of Arizona (UA) were using Jetstream -- a large-scale cloud environment for research located both at TACC and Indiana University -- to develop cloud-based data analysis pipelines that proved crucial for combining huge amounts of data taken from the geographically-distributed observatories, and sharing the data with researchers around the world. "New technologies such as cloud computing are essential to support international collaborations like this," said Chi-kwan Chan, leader of the EHT Computations and Software Working Group and an assistant astronomer at UA. "The production run was actually carried out on Google Cloud, but much of the early development was on Jetstream. Without Jetstream, it is unclear that we would have a cloud-based pipeline at all."

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Categories: Geek

AM Joy Guest: Dem Candidates Should NOT Give Fox News A Lifeline By Appearing In Town Halls

Crooks and Liars - Sun, 04/21/2019 - 17:58

We've seen Democratic candidate, Bernie Sanders hold a Town Hall on Fox News. This was after the DNC stated they would not participate in a primary debate on Fox News because it is clearly a propaganda network for Donald Trump and little else. Furthermore it propagates outright lies, and vile racist hate speech — something with which Democrats rightly do not wish to be associated, or to be seen as potentially lending legitimacy to with their presence. Yet, Sen. Sanders went on there and held a town hall, wowed the audience that had a large contingent of Sanders fans, and really got under Trump's skin. Fox got to claim victory, in getting someone running as a Democrat on their network, and in taking another step towards said legitimacy.

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Categories: Politics

Trump's immigration plans are all about pain, fear, cowardice, bigotry, and punishment

Daily Kos - Sun, 04/21/2019 - 17:45

When Trump first slithered down an escalator pronounce his stunt to get paid more than Gwen Stefani by NBC, announce his run for the White House, he came out of the gate with a ridiculously bigoted false notion that “Mexicans are rapists.” 

“If you go to Fusion, you will see a story: About 80% of the women coming in — you know who owns Fusion? Univision!” Trump told [Don} Lemon. “Go to Fusion and pick up the stories on rape. And it’s unbelievable when you look at what’s going on. So all I’m doing is telling the truth, Trump told Lemon.

It really didn’t take me more than three minutes to look up what he claimed was his source for this argument to find that he had totally misconstrued the Fusion report about migrant women from Central America being tricked and trapped into prostitution as trade and barter to help pay for their passage through Mexico. The report said literally nothing about “Mexico sending rapists to America” because that’s seriously not a thing. 

I still don’t know what excuse has been made for the rest of the so-called professional media—because I was certainly an unpaid amateur at the time—to simply fact check his statement up front by using his own source and point out that it he was spouting bullshit from Day One. It should be easy to point out that the reason they started traveling in caravans was to protect them from these gangs, cartels, and corrupt officials that were forcing them to pay for the price of passage in pounds of flesh. Unfortunately, that never happened.

Consequently, the opinion that certain immigrants are largely criminals and basically scum has always been Trump’s starting point for his “thinking” and policies. Hence we have this crazy Rube Goldberg/Wile E. Coyote plot to deal with the migration problem on our southern border.

Trump has apparently concocted this plan that a) since Immigrants are “criminals” that he can use their inherent threat against public safety as a b) political targeted cudgel in violation of the Hatch Act which prohibits the use of government for partisan purposes against his political opponents. You know, those squishy liberal Democrats in so-called Sanctuary Cities—in order to get them to c) agree to carve out an override and exception to the 5th Amendment Due Process Clause, the 14th Amendment Equal Protection Clause, the 1951 UN Convention on the Refugee which as a treaty which was ratified in 1969 through the Supremacy Clause. It is currently considered part of the “supreme law of the land” so that d) hundreds of thousand of undocumented immigrants can be summarily deported without an immigration or asylum hearing before a judge.

Categories: Politics

Red Hat Takes Over Maintenance of OpenJDK 8 and OpenJDK 11 From Oracle

Slashdot - Sun, 04/21/2019 - 17:20
"Red Hat is taking over maintenance responsibilities for OpenJDK 8 and OpenJDK 11 from Oracle," reports InfoWorld: Red Hat will now oversee bug fixes and security patches for the two older releases, which serve as the basis for two long-term support releases of Java. Red Hat's updates will feed into releases of Java from Oracle, Red Hat, and other providers... Previously, Red Hat led the OpenJDK 6 and OpenJDK 7 projects. Red Hat is not taking over OpenJDK 9 or OpenJDK 10, which were short-term releases with a six-month support window.

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Categories: Geek

Happy Easter, You Anklebiting Jackals

Balloon Juice - Sun, 04/21/2019 - 17:13

As always, the Easter tradition of posting my sister’s dearly departed Irie and the Easter Bunny:

This is really one of my favorite pictures in the world. When I think back about Irie, I think I love him more and more now that I have been around so many more dogs. He was such a good boy. Dumb as a sack of hammers, but so sweet.

Categories: Politics

Bluecherry Open Sources Its Entire Linux Surveillance Server

Slashdot - Sun, 04/21/2019 - 16:44
"Big changes are here," writes the official blog for Bluecherry: In 2010 we released our multi-port MPEG4 video capture card with an open source driver (solo6x10) and in 2011 updated the driver to support our multi-port H.264 capture cards. Later, this open source driver was later added into the mainline Linux kernel. In 2013 we released our multi-platform surveillance application client with an open source (GPL) license. We are proud to announce that Effective April 18, 2019 we have released the entire Bluecherry software application open source with a GPL license. An anonymous reader writes: This includes the Linux based server application and the Windows / Linux / OS X client. Bluecherry's GitHub repo is now open for public viewing.

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Categories: Geek

WormBase Manet is DOWN, 1555877766

WormBase Manet - Sun, 04/21/2019 - 16:35
Categories: Bio

Linux 5.2 Will Introduce The Fieldbus Subsystem

Slashdot - Sun, 04/21/2019 - 16:14
"The new Fieldbus system has been deemed ready to be released into the staging area of the Linux kernel," writes jwhyche (Slashdot reader #6,192). Phoronix reports: This newest subsystem for the Linux kernel benefits industrial systems. Fieldbus is a set of network protocols for real-time distributed control of automated industrial systems. Fieldbus is used for connecting different systems/components/instruments within industrial environments. Fieldbus is used for connecting facilities ranging from manufacturing plants up to nuclear energy facilities. The Fieldbus specification has been around for decades while now seeing a formal subsystem within the Linux kernel. The subsystem allows for devices to exchange data over a Fieldbus whether it be Profinet, FLNet, or one of the other implementations. The subsystem provides a generic framework for exposing switches, lights, actuators, motors, and other hardware... The Linux kernel's Fieldbus subsystem has gone through over ten rounds of public revisions in recent months and has been deemed ready to premiere with Linux 5.2 [which] should debut in July.

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Categories: Geek

Election 2020: Who's got policies? Who's got platitudes?

Daily Kos - Sun, 04/21/2019 - 16:00

With some 18 Democratic presidential candidates and counting, it’s hard to keep track of who stands for what: which candidates have developed policy expertise and proposals on which issues, and which ones sound good but still keep talking in generalities.

For most candidates, there’s no shortage of policy positions. A Think Progress piece argues that the focus of this election (so far, at least) has been policy, policy, policy.

So just how do a swelling numbers of Democrats convince an inattentive citizenry to turn away from other distractions and pay attention to their political palaver?

Short answer: Nearly all of them are staking out early policy positions on a wide range of issues to burnish a self-flattering political image, before the full-scale campaign onslaught begins in earnest. …

These early-season policy ideas are the introductory gambits for candidates to test out on the hustings and in media interviews. Their early campaign messages are aimed to draw support from narrow, targeted slices of the Democratic electorate, in hopes of building a groundswell of broader, national support for their nascent campaigns.

Maybe in the long run, those policy details won’t matter. Maybe the majority of Democratic primary voters instead will turn toward a candidate who offers a feeling of comfort or “likeability.” Or the quickest candidate, or the sharpest, or the brightest, or the most honest. Or even the one who passes the proverbial test of “someone you could have a beer with.” And Democratic voters have been clear about one thing: They want to nominate the candidate who would best be able to beat Donald Trump.

Unfortunately, there’s little evidence that we can evaluate who that candidate is right now, despite early opinion polls or the amount of money raised. We can see who’s getting the most media attention, airtime, and Sunday morning talk show invitations. But the media can be fickle: Just ask former Texas Rep. Beto O’Rourke.

Candidates’ positives and negatives right now are meaningless. Any candidate with high approval ratings will see those numbers take a nosedive when the right-wing attack machine—whether that’s charges about “socialism,” Donald Trump’s ridiculous tweets and demeaning nicknames, Fox News slander and innuendo, or outright lies spread by conspiracy theorists—starts peddling falsehoods and negative stories about Democratic candidates. Mainstream media will pick those up and repeat them verbatim with little context or explanation.

But here’s what the emphasis on policy does: It takes issues that are important to Democratic voters and forces them to the forefront. For the most part, candidates agree on these issues. All of the Democratic hopefuls are talking about health care. All are talking about climate change, whether they’re backing the Green New Deal, or other specific policies. All are talking about immigration, gun reform, and jobs. All are talking about evening the playing field for poor families and increasing taxes for the super-rich.

Here are some of the policies that candidates have espoused so far. This is by no means a comprehensive list, and it doesn’t include every candidate. But it offers a shorthand breakdown on what different Democrats would set as priorities in the White House.

Categories: Politics

A Slammin' New Track From Tom Morello With Gary Clark Jr. & Gramatik: "Can't Stop the Bleeding"

Little Green Footballs - Sun, 04/21/2019 - 15:29

Stream and download "Can't Stop The Bleeding" - http://smarturl.it/CantStopTheBleeding

Tom Crew - Animator
Sean Evans - Director
Lagan Sebert - Producer
Production Company - Magic Seed Productions

Catch Tom Morello on "The Atlas Underground LIVE" Tour in 2019. For dates and tickets visit http://www.tommorello.com

Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/tommorello
Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/tommorello
Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/tmorello

Categories: Politics

Historic 'Summit' with the Creators of Python, Java, TypeScript, and Perl

Slashdot - Sun, 04/21/2019 - 15:07
"At the first annual charity event conducted by Puget Sound Programming Python on April 2, four legendary language creators came together to discuss the past and future of language design," reports PacktPub. - Guido van Rossum, the creator of Python - James Gosling, the founder, and lead designer behind the Java programming language - Anders Hejlsberg, the original author of Turbo Pascal who has also worked on the development of C# and TypeScript - Larry Wall, the creator of Perl You can watch the video here -- the speaker introductions start about 50 minutes into the video-- or read PacktPub's summary of the event: Guido van Rossum said designing a programming language is very similar to the way JK Rowling writes her books, the Harry Potter series... He says JK Rowling is a genius in the way that some details that she mentioned in her first Harry Potter book ended up playing an important plot point in part six and seven... When designing a language we start with committing to certain details like the keywords we want to use, the style of coding we want to follow, etc. But, whatever we decide on we are stuck with them and in the future, we need to find new ways to use those details, just like Rowling... When James Gosling was asked how Java came into existence and what were the design principles he abided by, he simply said, "it didn't come out of like a personal passion project or something. It was actually from trying to build a prototype.... It started out as kind of doing better C and then it got out of control that the rest of the project really ended up just providing the context." In the end, the only thing out of that project survived was Java... Larry Wall wanted to create a language that was more like a natural language. Explaining through an example, he said, "Instead of putting people in a university campus and deciding where they go we're just gonna see where people want to walk and then put shortcuts in all those places." A basic principle behind creating Perl was to provide APIs to everything. It was aimed to be both a good text processing language linguistically but also a glue language.... Similar to the views of Guido van Rossum, Anders Hejlsberg adds that any decision that you make when designing a language you have to live with it. When designing a language you need to be very careful about reasoning over what "not" to introduce in the language. There was also some discussion of types -- Gosling believes they help improve performance, while Hejlsberg said types are also useful when building coding tools. "It turns out that you can actually be more productive by adding types if you do it in a non-intrusive manner and if you work hard on doing good type inference and so forth." In fact, Hejlsberg told the audience that the TypeScript project was inspired by massive "write-only" JavaScript code bases, while a semantic understanding (including a type system) makes refactoring easier. Guido van Rossum acknowledged that TypeScript "is actually incredibly useful and so we're adding a very similar idea to Python. We are adding it in a slightly different way because we have a different context.... I've learned a painful lesson, that for small programs dynamic typing is great. For large programs, you have to have a more disciplined approach. And it helps if the language actually gives you that discipline, rather than telling you, 'Well, you can do whatever you want.'" In the video Larry Wall says the Perl 6 team had also noticed the limitations of loose typing, and added a robust type system to Perl 6 to "help with programming in the large." This was the first annual benefit for CSforALL, a group promoting high-quality computer science classes at every grade level.

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